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Indians (East indians) have no toilets 好几亿印度人没有厕所

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鲜花(101) 鸡蛋(1)
发表于 2017-11-20 12:40 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 billzhao 于 2017-11-20 16:11 编辑 % W$ b9 P! G! b) ^3 o2 R- h
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Why do millions of Indians defecate in the open?5 q' Q- ?: m$ I6 m2 U. D- ~' Z
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5 O! {" U9 W) }It's early morning and local commuters are queuing up for tickets at the Kirti Nagar railway station in the Indian capital, Delhi. Along the tracks, another crowd is gathering - each person on his own, separated by a modest distance. They are among the 48% of Indians who do not have access to proper sanitation.3 B. y9 u& |& U( R8 S* `

/ l/ m- j2 p5 D3 P0 k, R) RComing from a slum close-by, they squat among the few trees and bushes along the railway tracks and defecate in the open. To many, this is a daily morning ritual despite the hazards of contracting diseases such as diarrhoea and hepatitis.' j3 U" H3 }0 Q; u- O
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It can be even more hazardous for women since each time a woman uses the outdoors to relieve herself, she faces a danger of sexual assault. Recently two teenage girls from the state of Uttar Pradesh were gang-raped and found hanging from a tree after they left their village home to go to the toilet. Their house, like hundreds of millions of others in the country, did not have any facilities.8 F; |5 M  _& I

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7 y# V1 \$ `1 d' R* p# VA new World Health Organisation (WHO) report says more than half a billion people in India still "continue to defecate in gutters, behind bushes or in open water bodies, with no dignity or privacy".6 D1 D5 m. k- D

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$ E5 K# y& R& x# ?Access to sanitation is a challenge that India's politicians want to tackle - both the Congress and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) promised to put an end to open defecation in their 2014 general election manifestos. During his campaign, Narendra Modi, BJP's newly-elected prime minister, promised: "Toilets first, temples later". And former rural development minister Jairam Ramesh of the Congress party had stressed that "practicing good hygiene is as important as performing good puja" (act of worship in Hinduism).& |& L" G9 y/ C: w) x

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( F. ~8 ~! V3 w: n) R- I8 kIndia's government offers cash incentives to subsidise construction of toilets. It has also initiated hygiene and sanitation awareness campaigns, such as the "No Toilet, No Bride" slogan launched in the state of Haryana in 2005, urging brides to reject a groom if he did not have a lavatory at home.* h( o" N1 z, M5 L! V
The Gates Foundation too has offered grants to create latrines that are not connected to water, sewer or electricity and to improve the treatment of human waste.2 T1 A" v& j+ J
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The exhibits at a recent "toilet fair" organised by the Foundation in Delhi included a lavatory with a photovoltaic roof-top that powers a reactor breaking down excrements into fertiliser, and another one which came equipped with an automatic sterilisation system and a generator turning the moisture into water.4 k& Q! b! m3 n7 B; o5 @& R5 w8 \
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Apart from poverty and lack of lavatories, one of the reasons often cited to explain open defecation in India is the ingrained cultural norm making the practice socially accepted in some parts of the society. "Just building toilets is not going to solve the problem, because open defecation is a practice acquired from the time you learn how to walk. When you grow up in an environment where everyone does it, even if later in life you have access to proper sanitation, you will revert back to it," says Sue Coates, chief of Wash (water, sanitation and hygiene) at Unicef.* M, v- W: W+ ?$ W$ t
India will be free of open defecation only when "every Indian household, every village, every part of Indian society will accept the need to use toilets and commit to do so", she says.% k% E0 \! i# g% \# g
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Professor at the Centre for Environmental Planning and Technology Meera Mehta says the strategies implemented so far may not have the expected impact because of a "lack of focus". "With the right policies and political attention, India can be free from open defecation within 10 years.

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鲜花(101) 鸡蛋(1)
 楼主| 发表于 2017-11-20 12:48 | 显示全部楼层
India census: Half of homes have phones but no toilets8 c% p1 I" c( z( y! S! ?5 T
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Nearly half of India's 1.2 billion people have no toilet at home, but more people own a mobile phone, according to the latest census data.
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Only 46.9% of the 246.6 million households have lavatories while 49.8% defecate in the open. The remaining 3.2% use public toilets." b' w' V, c! b2 F

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5 W3 M! u5 N0 H  W1 ~8 TCensus 2011 data on houses, household amenities and assets reveal that 63.2% of homes have a telephone. They say the census reveals a country where millions have access to cutting-edge technology and consumer goods but a larger number of poor who lack access to even basic facilities.  j8 {9 A$ d+ }+ v; ]' f
About 77% of homes in the eastern state of Jharkhand have no toilet facilities, while the figure is 76.6% for Orissa and 75.8% in Bihar. All three are among India's poorest states with huge populations which live on less than a dollar a day.* Z% i% u( e( |# ?3 }8 G4 c' F
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"Open defecation continues to be a big concern for the country as almost half of the population do it," Registrar General and Census Commissioner C Chandramouli said while releasing the latest data.
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4 T# x5 o; n1 ^"Cultural and traditional reasons and a lack of education are the prime reasons for this unhygienic practice. We have to do a lot in these fronts," he said.7 v+ D$ Q' T+ E: \
The data also reveal that Indians now largely live in nuclear families with 70% of homes consisting of only one couple - a dramatic change in a country where joint families were always the norm.
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The census figures also show changes in how people access information and entertainment.
) ^+ y% w0 U. ], V; O' WMore than half the population - 53.2% - have a mobile phone.
% F, A$ ^; G0 B5 h  r2 @  _6 `There has been a 16% rise in the number of homes with television sets, while the use of radios has declined by 15%.
$ _0 C6 u1 q, I& h$ B% @. KThe data show that 47.2% of households have a television while only 19.9% have a radio.
7 {8 K/ B6 |* A( mAnd the reach of computers with internet access is still minuscule, with only 3.1% of the population connected.
鲜花(101) 鸡蛋(1)
 楼主| 发表于 2017-11-20 13:33 | 显示全部楼层
电火锅 洗衣机 电高压锅 面包机 抽油烟机 卡拉OK机 豆浆机
Actyally the main reason to this problem are many, and i will explain some of them.* `" ^/ u; S6 J1 ~

% N' M* X1 s% I. x% l' D8 b% O5 L# ^People should made to love using toilets. It seems to be funny but that’s the truth. “Many people regard open defecation as part of a wholesome, healthy, virtuous life,” a recent study conducted in Bihar, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh found.
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Secondly, those who even have installed toilets even they do not use them, moreover they pefer to go oustide in the field for defeacation./ ]& T0 F0 O$ {! n3 U# O. v
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The RICE study found that out of 3,235 rural homes, 43% had a working toilet. Of those, over 40% had at least one member of the household who nevertheless opted to defecate in the open. When asked why, almost 75% said they did so because it was pleasurable, comfortable and convenient.6 a# h5 t2 D2 |" j7 I
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Money problem is also an issue for not able to build a toilet which can dispose waste properly.
鲜花(101) 鸡蛋(1)
 楼主| 发表于 2017-11-20 13:34 | 显示全部楼层
The main reasons to why most Indian’s lack toilets are:+ h. ]7 N9 }5 F/ ~5 r
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Lack of education: Even though India is working rapidly towards providing primary education to even child, due to lack of attention given by education ministry, children don’t regularly show up to school. This limits a grain of vital education about health and sanitation.% J, o' |3 D0 j6 G+ m$ H

" m: S, f- v! x" U: TWater crisis: Areas where water is not readily available, the toilet problem is greater. To conserve water, the idea of washing and flushing requires much more water than going to farms and using water to wash only.
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Financial problems: mostly in rural areas and in urban slums, money is limited and hard to earn. Thus, building a toilet requires money which is not in best interest of these financially bounded people.
鲜花(0) 鸡蛋(0)
发表于 2017-12-11 08:09 | 显示全部楼层
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